Atoms Are Made Up Of More Particles Other Than Proton, Electron And Neutron
Post on 03,February 2018   1:00 AM
By - PolyEyes Staff
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In March 2017, Scientists of Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) found five new sub-atomic particles.

What are subatomic particles? Atoms are usually made of protons, neutrons and electrons. These are made of the smallest particles we know to exist, called fundamental particles.

Fundamental particles are subdivided into two groups, the first being fermions, the particles that make up matter. The second are bosons, the force particles that hold the others together. Within the group of fermions are fundamental particles known as quarks. When quarks combine in threes, they form compound particles known as baryons. Protons are probably the best-known baryons. Often, quarks interact with corresponding antiparticles, such as antiquarks, which have the same mass but opposite charges and when this happens, they form mesons. Mesons often turn up in the decay of heavy man-made particles, such as those in accelerators. Mesons, baryons, and other kinds of particles that take part in interactions like these are called hadrons.

About the recent discovery: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the latest addition to CERN’s accelerator complex, is the most powerful particle accelerator ever built. It features a 27 kilometer (16 mile) ring made of superconducting magnets and accelerating structures built to boost the energy of particles in the chamber. In the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams are forced to collide from opposite directions at speeds close to the speed of light.

The energy densities that are created when these collisions occur cause ordinary matter to melt into its constituent parts—quarks and gluons. This triggered the interrogation regarding the basic constituents of matter–the fundamental particles of the Standard Model.

The newly discovered particles are high-energy versions of the omega-c baryon, a particle made up of two strange quarks and one charm quark. Omega-c-zero is a part of the same family of protons and neutrons, the so- called baryons, because they have three quarks, the fundamental building blocks of matter.

These particle states are named, according to the standard convention, Omega-c- zero (3000), Omega-c- zero (3050), Omega-c-zero (3066), Omega-c-zero (3090) and Omega-c-zero (3119). The numbers indicate their masses in mega electronvolts (MeV).

Characteristic numbers are used to identify the properties of a specific particle and the determination of their theoretical significance.

Concluding Remark: It is a project of massive, unparalleled proportions. More than 10,000 scientists and engineers are currently working together to find more about the fundamental properties of physics using the LHC. And today, a paper proved that these discoveries aren’t slowing down. This discovery was made possible with the help of specialized capabilities of the Large Hadron Collider detector in the precise recognition of different types of particles and the large dataset accumulated during the first and second runs of the Large Hadron Collider. These two ingredients allowed the five excited states to be identified with an overwhelming level of statistical significance – meaning that the discovery cannot be just a statistical fluke of data.

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