Bharat Stage Emission Standards Upgradation Might Not Be The Only Solution Today
Post on 09,February 2018   8:00 AM
By - PolyEyes Staff
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As per rules from April, India will move to Bharat Stage IV (BS-IV) vehicular emission norms.

What are Bharat Stage emission standards? Bharat Stage emission standards, introduced in 2000, are emission standards that have been set up the Central government to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles. India has been following the European emission norms with a time-lag of five years. The BS- IV compliant fuels have Sulphur concentration of 50 parts per million (ppm). This will come down to as low as 10 ppm in BS-VI compliant fuels and auto engines. By switching to BS-VI, India will join the league of the US, Japan and the European Union, which follow Euro Stage VI emission norms. BS-VI is the Indian equivalent of Euro Stage VI.

Difference in BS-IV and BS-VI standards : The BS norms have been similar to Euro norms till now, and with norms after BS-IV not defined yet, we compare the existing BS-III and BS-IV norms in India with the Euro 6 norms on which India's emission norms have been set.

Petrol Emission Norms (All figures in g/km)

 Emission Norm 

 CO

 HC 

 NOx 

HC+NOx 

PM

 BS-III

 2.30

 0.20

 0.15 

 --- 

 --- 

 BS-IV

 1.00

 0.10 

 0.08 

 --- 

 --- 

 Euro 6

 1.00

 0.10

 0.06 

 ---

 0.005 


Diesel Emission Norms (All figures in g/km)

 Emission Norm 

 CO

 HC 

 NOx 

HC+NOx 

PM

 BS-III

 0.64

 ---

 0.50 

 0.56

 0.05 

 BS-IV

 0.50

 --- 

 0.25 

 0.30

 0.025 

 Euro 6

 0.50

 ---

 0.06 

 0.17

 0.005 






 

CO emissions are Carbon Monoxide emissions are more evident in Petrol engines. Long Term exposure can prevent oxygen transfer and increase headaches/nausea.

HC emissions are Hydrocarbons which are again more prevalent in Petrol engines. Short term exposure can cause headaches, vomiting and disorientation.

NOx emissions are Nitrogen Oxide emissions which are more prevalent in Diesel engines. Long Term exposure can cause Nose and eye irritation and damage lung tissue.

PM is Particulate matter, again more prevalent in a Diesel engine. Long Term exposure can harm the respiratory tract and reduce lung function.

India introduced emission norms in 1991 and by 1996 most vehicle manufacturers had to incorporate technology upgrades like catalytic converters to cut exhaust emissions.

Supreme Court in 1999 made Centre notify Bharat Stage-I (BIS 2000) and Bharat Stage-II norms, broadly equivalent to Euro I and Euro II respectively, In 2014, Saumitra Chaudhary committee gave recommendations on Auto Fuel Vision Policy 2025 which had recommended implementation of BS-IV (2017), BS-V (2019) and BS-VI (2024) standards. Currently BS-IV norms are currently followed across 63 Indian cities for petrol and diesel, while the rest still use BS-III fuel. In recent times, government decided to move up to the toughest emission standards of BS-VI from the current BS-IV by April 2020 skipping BS- V standard.

Why is it important? This would mean a lower level of harmful emissions and lower pollution related diseases.

This would significantly bring down share of vehicular pollution by reducing concentration of carbon monoxide, un- burnt hydrocarbons, nitrous oxide and particulate matter from emissions.

Concluding Remark: Government should make the emission standards transition gradual along with searching for alternative fuels like ethanol and methanol blending .Moving to BS-VI directly will require significant technological upgrades for which auto companies may need to invest heavily. Smaller bonnet cars of India may not be able to imbibe DPF in them.

Normally it takes 4 years to upgrade and the government’s vision may be too revolutionary. This can have the effect of making cars and other vehicles more expensive. Copying the Euro norms as it is and implementing it here can be problematic, considering that driving conditions in India are different from Europe. Further, improving the emission will not alone solve the problem of vehicular pollution as the number of vehicles is disproportionately high in Indian cities. The government can focus on lowering the demand of fuels and encourage physical mobility.


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