Birth Of Indian States In Chronicle Order
Post on 29,December 2012   10:59 PM
By - Mr. S.N Singh
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Even after the large scale reorganization of the states in 1956, the political map of India underwent continuous change due to the pressure of popular agitation and political conditions. The demand for the creation of some more states on the basis of language or cultural homogeneity resulted in the bifurcation of existing states.

Maharashtra and Gujarat: In 1960, the bilingual state Bombay was divided into two separate states Maharashtra for Marathi speaking people and Gujarat for Gujarat speaking people. Gujarat was established as the 15th state of Indian Union.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli: The Portuguese ruled this territory until its libration in 1954. Subsequently, the administration was carried on till 1961 by an administrator chosen by the people themselves. It was converted into a union territory on India by the 10th constitutional Amendment Act, 1961.

Goa, Daman and Diu: India acquired these three territories from the Portuguese by means of police action in 1961. They were constituted as union territory by the 12th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962. Later, in 1987 Goa was conferred as statehood. Consequently, Daman and Diu was made a separate union territory.

Puducherry: The territory of Puducherry comprises the former French establishments in India Known as Puducherry , Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam. The French handed over this territory to India in 1954. Subsequently, it was administered as an acquired territory, till 1962 when it was made a union territory by the 14th Constitutional Amendment Act.  

Nagaland: In 1963, the state of Nagaland was formed by taking the Naga Hills and Tuensang area out of the state Assam. This was done to satisfy the movement of hostile Nagas. However, before giving Nagaland the status of the 16th state of the Indian Union, it was placed under the control of governor of the Assam in 1961.

Haryana, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh: In 1966, the state of Punjab was bifurcated to create Haryana, the 17th state of Indian Union, and the union territory of Chandigarh. This followed the demand for separate Sikh Homeland raised by the Akali Dal under the leadership of Master Tara Singh. On the recommendation of the Shah Commission 1966, the Punjabi speaking area  were constituted into the state of Haryana and the hill areas were merged with the adjoining union territory of Himachal Pradesh. In 1971, the union territory of Himachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of 18th state of Union of India.

Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya: In 1972 the political map of Northern India underwent a major change. Thus, the two Union Territories of Manipur and Tripura and the sub state Meghalaya got the statehood and the two union territories Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh came into being. With this, the number of states of the Indian Union increased to 21(Manipur 19th, Tripura 20th and Meghalaya 21st ). Initially, the 22nd Constitution Amendment Act 1969, created Meghalaya as an autonomous state or sub state within the state of Assam with its own legislature and council of Ministers. However, this did not satisfy the aspiration of the people of Meghalaya.  The union territory of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh were also formed out of the territories of Assam.

Sikkim: Till 1947, Sikkim was an Indian princely state ruled by Chogyal. In 1947, after the lapse of British paramountncy, Sikkim become a protectorate of India, whereby the Indian Government assumed responsibility for the defense, external affairs and communications of Sikkim. In 1974, Sikkim expressed its desire for greater association with India. Accordingly, the 35th Constitutional Amendment Act 1974 was enacted by the parliament. This amendment introduced a new class of statehood under the constitution by conferring on Sikkim the status of an associate state of the Indian Union. For this purpose, a new Article 2A and a new schedule (Tenth conserving the terms and condition of Association) were inserted in the constitution. The experiment however did not last long as it could not fully satisfy the people of Sikkim. In a referendum held in 1975, they voted for the abolition of institution of Chogyal and Sikkim becoming the integral part of India. Consequently, the 36th Constitutional Amendment Act 1975 was enacted to make Sikkim as full fledge state of India. This amended the first and forth schedules to the constitution and added Article 371 F to provide certain special provisions with respect to the Administration of Sikkim. It also repealed the administration of Sikkim. It also repealed the article 2A and the Tenth schedule that were added by 35th Amendment Act 1974.

Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Goa: In 1987, three new states of Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Goa came into being as 23rd, 24th and 25th states of Indian Union respectively. The union territory Mizoram was conferred of full state as a sequel to the signing of a memorandum of settlement in 1986 between central government and Mizo National Front, ending the two decade old insurgency. Auranachal Pradesh had also been a union territory from 1972. The state of Goa was created by separating the territory of Goa from the Union Territory of Goa , Daman and Diu.

Chhattisgarh, Uttrakhand and Jharkhand: In 2000, three more state Chhattisgarh, Uttrakhand and Jharkhand was created out of the territories of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar respectively. These became the 26th, 27th and 28th states of Indian Union respectively. Thus the total number of states and union territory increased from 14th and 6 in 1956 to 28 and 7 in 2000 respectively. 


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