Must Know Facts About Coral Reefs And Atoll
Post on 26,February 2016   6:00 AM
By - PolyEyes Staff
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Coral Reef: Significant submarine feature formed because of accumulation of skeletons of coral polyps (lime secreting organism). Coral polyps thrive in tropical ocean (20o N- 25oS latitude) kin on lime. Coral reefs are formed due to formation of one shell upon another shell along submarine platforms at suitable depth. 

  • Coral polyps cannot survive above water level, they are found up to sea level under se water.
  • Generally attached to submarine platforms.
  • More diverse than tropical rainforest because the coral reefs have about then Lacs spices of which any 10 percent have been studied. Also called rainforest of the ocean.

Conditions for the growth of coral polyps:

  • Corals are found mainly in the tropical ocean, they require high mean temperature (20o C - 21oC). They cannot survive in the water having very low or very high temperature. 
  • Corals do not live in deep water below 77m they die because of lack of sunlight and oxygen.
  • Turbid or muddy water clogs the mouth of coral reefs resulting into their death. 
  • Fresh water is also injurious to the growth of corals. They avoid coastal lauds and stay away from river mouths.
  • High salinity (little amount of calcium carbonate) injurious to the growth of coral polyps because such water contains little amount of calcium carbonate (important feed for coral polyps).
  • Coral grows in open sea and ocean but they die in lagoons and small enclosed sea because of lack of supply of food.
  • Extensive platform required for the formation of colonies by the coral polyps. Such platforms should not be more than 90miters. Polyps start up their colonies from base of hard rocks and grow upward until they reach sea level.
  • Polyps also grow the submarine platforms. 

Types of coral reefs:

Fringing reef: developed along the continental margins or along islands. Steep and vertical seaward slope of landward is gentle. Upper surface is corrugated and uneven. Fringing reefs are generally attached to the coastal land but sometimes there is gap between them and land and thus lagoon is formed between them. Wherever the river drain the continuity of coral reefs are broken.

Barrier reef: largest coral reefs off the coastal platforms but parallel to them are called barrier reefs. Barrier reefs are largest, highest and most extensive. They are rarely found continuous but mostly they are broken at many places and thus the lagoon have contact with the open sea and oceans through (xyz). 

Great Barrier Reef, located parallel to the west of Australia, is the largest of all barrier reefs of the world.

A ring of narrow growing corals of horseshoe shape and crowned with palm treesis called atoll. Generally found around are island or in elliptical form on a submarine platform. Lagoon is there in the middle of coral ring. Atolls are divided into three types: true atoll, island atoll and coral island or atoll island

Coral bleaching: Loss of algae from the corals resulting into the white colour which is indicative of death corals. Global worming has been reported as the major factor of coral bleaching. 

Cause of large scale coral bleaching have been reported in the Andaman and Nicober island of India. The have mainly colonized around the Lakhwadeep and the Andaman and Nicober islands. Small patches of coral reefs are found in the Gulf of Kutch and the gulf of manner. 


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