Distribution Of Mangrove Forest In India
Post on 21,September 2019   7:00 PM
By - Miss. Vibha Yadav
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In and also complex root system which protect them from wave action. The distribution of mangrove forest is found in tropical and subtropical region, mainly between latitudes 25°N to 25°S.

The mangrove biome is basically a sediments deposition in an area protected from high-energy wave action.

India's mangrove cover: Total area under mangrove cover is 4921 kilometre square, which contributes 3.3% to the global mangrove cover.

Sundarbans: The Sundarbans in the Gangas-Brahmputra delta extend from the Hooghly river in West Bengal to the Baleswar river in Bangladesh.This area comprises closed and open mangrove forests, agriculturally used land, mudflats and barren land. It is the largest mangrove region and the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world.
  • This region is part of the Great Sundarbans and covers a National Park, Tiger reserve and a Biosphere Reserve.
  • This region is also UNESCO world heritage site and Ramsar wetland site.
  • India's mangrove forests are habitat for salt water crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), turtles, and snakes.
Bhitarkanika:
  • India's second largest mangrove forest, located in the state of Odisha.
  • Bhitarkanika is created by the two river deltas of Brahmani and Baitarani river and one of the important Ramsar Wetland in India.
  • It is also the home of saltwater crocodiles and nesting olive ridley sea turtles.
Godavari-Krishna: Mangroves ecoregion is under protection for Calimere Wildlife and Pulicat lake Bird Sanctuary.

Pichavaram: It is situated at Pichavaram near Chidambaram in the state of Tamil Nadu.
Mumbai: Mumbai's single largest mangrove belt is the western bank of Thane creek.
Baratang Island: It is located within the Andman and Nicobar islands.

Importance of Mangroves: It is found in one satellite based study of NASA that Mangrove forests move carbon dioxide "from the atmosphere into long-term storage" in greater quantities than other forests, making them "among the planet's best carbon scrubbers". Other Importance of Mangroves are following:
  • They protect shorelines from damaging storm and hurricane winds, waves, and floods.
  • Mangroves also help prevent erosion by stabilizing sediments with their tangled root systems.
  • They maintain water quality and clarity, filtering pollutants and trapping sediments originating from land.
  • Mangroves serve as valuable nursery areas for fish and invertebrates. In addition to commercially important species, mangroves also support a number of threatened and endangered species.
  • Mangroves are utilized in many parts of the world as a renewable resource and also used in building houses, boats, pilings, and furniture.

Causes of depletion: 
  • Mangrove forests have often been seen as unproductive and smelly, and so cleared to make room for agricultural land, human settlements and infrastructure, industrial areas and most recently for tourism developments.
  • Over harvesting of the forest for various purpose
  • Creation of big dams and extensive irrigation are continue reducing the amount of water reaching to the mangrove which will result in increasing salinity and the mangroves can't survive.
  • Overfishing in the mangrove areas
  • Coral reefs provide the first barrier current and strong waves. But if they are destroyed, the strong and destructive waves directly reach to mangroves and wash away the essential nutrients.
  • Fertilizers, pesticides, and other toxic man-made chemicals carried by river systems from sources upstream can kill animals living in mangrove forests.
  • Mangrove forests require stable sea levels for long-term survival. They are therefore extremely sensitive to current rising sea levels caused by global warming and climate change.

Way Forward: Nature has provided us many useful resources which is essential for human survival and we as a generation has responsibility to use them wisely and protect them from all kind of adversities. Mangrove forest is one of them and very important for maintaining coastal ecology. 

 


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