JPSC Paper II High Yield Topic (O) Disaster Management In Jharkhand
Post on 18,March 2021   4:50 PM
By - PolyEyes Staff
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Number of Question Allotted: 5

Total Marks Allotted: 10

Disaster Management in Jharkhand: All 24 Districts of Jharkhand is affected by some form of disaster. Jharkhand state specific disasters are Drought, Mining Accidents, Industrial and Chemical Accidents, Lightening, Earthquake, Environment Change and Biodiversity loss, Naxalism and Landmines blast, Epidemic Spread though Birds and Animals, Elephant Attack and Forest Fire.

  • Drought and Flood: All 24 districts of Jharkhand are affected by drought and Palamu district is most prone to drought. The only flood prone district is Jharkhand is Sahebganj. The rise in water level in rivers during monsoon is the major cause for flood. Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Saraikila are prone to Flash Flood.
  • Forest Fire: Jharkhand has 29.61 per cent area under forest cover and 9 of its districts are prone to forest fire. These districts are Gadhwa, Palamu, Latehar, Charta, Hazaribagh, Gumla, East Singhbhum West Singhbhum and Simdega.
  • Lightening: On an average 54 person annually dies with lightening. The districts most prone to lightening are Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Giridih, Dumka, Lohardagga, Koderma, Lathehar, Palamu and Chatra.

In order to take precautions against lightening, a special training module has been prepared by Srikrishna Institute of Public Administration (SKIPA).

Mining Accidents: Maximum loss of life occurs in Jharkhand during coal mining.  While coal mining Methane gas is released and this is responsible for maximum number of deaths. Fire in Jharia coal field since 1880 is deep matter of concern.

The Chasnala coal mining accident, 1975 took toll of 372 life. 

In open cast coal mining of East coal field limited (Rajmahal) took life of 11 labour on 29 December, 2016. In 1965 Bermo, 1993 Huriladih, 1995 Gjalitand, 2001 Bagadigi and 2006 Bhatdih took life of thousands of personal.

Elephant Attack: On an average 108 person dies due to elephant attack in Jharkhand. The strong fragrance of Mahua flowers attracts the elephants towards human settlement. The adjoining area of Saranda, Dalma, Dumka and Palamu forest is most effected by elephant attack.

Earthquake: The entire area of Jharkhand is divided into 3 regions on the basis of risk.

  • ZONE II: It consist of Lohardagga, Ranchi, Ramgradh, Khunti, Gumla, East Singhbhum and West Singhbhum.
  • ZONE IV: Districts included in this zone most sensitive to earthquake. It includes only two district Godda and Sahebganj.
  • ZONE III: It includes remaining 15 district of Jharkhand.

Biological disaster: The non-communicable disease Malaria effects most of the population in Jharkhand. The tribes of Jharkhand is most prone to malaria.

Disaster Management: It can be divided into Pre disaster, During disaster and Post disaster.

Pre disaster management:  It include research and development, pre alert system, planning, management and accumulation of resources to tackle disaster.

During Disaster: Providing relief to effected, transfer people to safe place and provide food/water/medicine to the effected.

Post Disaster management: Redevelopment and Rehabilitation.

On 25th December 2005, government of India implemented disaster management act (DMA). According to DMA, Disaster management authority (DMA) has been established. The DMA is chaired by Prime Minister. In 2006, central government established National Disaster Response force (NDRF). The NDRF consist of 8 battalion and each battalion consist of 1149 personal and officers. Also, National Institute of Disaster Management under ministry of home affairs government of India to provide necessary training.

Disaster Management in Jharkhand: In order to manage disaster in Jharkhand, Disaster department was established in 2004, Jharkhand state disaster management authority (JSDMA) was established under the chairmanship of chief minister on 28 may, 2010. Jharkhand state disaster response force (JSDRF) has been also established as per NDRF and District disaster management authority (DDMA) is established at district level. The chief minister chairs the state disaster management authority. JSDRF consist of 150 members which includes 25 officer and 125 personals.

Jharkhand government has established cabinet committee on management of Natural Calamities (CCMNC). It consists of chief minister as chairman and four cabinet ministers as members.

Emergency Operation Centre (EOC): Every district will have EOC and all EOC will be connected to Ranchi EOC though V-set satellite.

State Institute of Rural Development (SIRD): SIRD is apex institute of Panchayati Raj department and it provides training in disaster management to the panchayat personals.

Jharkhand Space Application Centre (JSAC): This is apex institute in Jharkhand for remote communication, Cartography and space related information.

Some Important organization in Jharkhand which plays major role in research and technical development for disaster management.

  • Drought Related: Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi.
  • Earthquake Related: Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi.
  • Mining Related: ISM (now IIT), Dhanbad.
  • Flood, Drought and Forest Fire Related: Jharkhand Space Applications Centre (JSAC), Ranchi.
  • Industrial Disaster Management: Macon, Ranchi.

The financial aid to tackle disaster is provided by state disaster response treasury (SDRT). In this central government contribution is 75 per cent and state government contribution is 25 per cent.

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