The Panchayati Raj system is the brain child of late former Prime Minister Mr Rajeev Gandhi to improve the governance in the country.
Panchayati Raj System in India realized through the 73rd Constitution amendment Act that stands as an important pillar in Local self rule in India which provided the architecture of the Panchayati Raj System of the country.
The act was passed by Loak sabha on 22 - Dec-1992 and by Rajya Sabha in 23-Dec-1992 .Finally on 20-Apr-1993 President of India gave his assent so the Act was bought into force by notification with effect from Apr-24, 1993.
The acts make the details of the transfer of the power to the Panchayat a part of the constitution of India.
Special Features of the Amendment:
Gram Sabha: The act has restored the important role of Gram Sabha.It was clear that the primary source of Democratic power is in the Village. The graam Sabha is expected to be an active institution for starting all development activities based on local needs.
Three-tier Model: The country will have an uniform three-tier system of panchayats that includes Village level, Intermediate level and district level.
Only the state having less population than 20 lakhs need not have to establish a panchayat at intermediate level.
Reservation of seats: The act provides reservation of SC and ST in Panchayat in proportion of their population. One third of the reserved seats of SCST is also reserved for the women candidates. Not less than one third of the seats will be reserved for the women.
The office of the chairperson of the Panchayat at village level shall be reserved for the SC&ST as per the proportion of their population. Also one third of the total seat of chairperson of the Panchayat will be reserved for the women.
Composition of Panchayat: Direct election in Panchayat is an distinguishing feature of this act. The person chosen by the direct election from their territorial constituencies shall fit the entire seat in Panchayat. The chairperson at the village level elected in such a manner as the legislature of the state may provide.
The chairperson at the intermediate and district level shall be elected by and from amongst the elected members.
Duration of Panchayat: Every Panchayat shall remain in office for five year normally. If it id dissolved due to any reason before this period is over, election will be held within six month. The reconstituted Panchayat will work for the remaining period of the total of five years.
Conduct of Election: The responsibility to conduct the desired election process is vested in the state election commission they will ensure that name of all people are in voter list and conduct the free and fair election.
Finance Commission: In order to make enough fund to the Panchayat for initiating various development activity, the 73rd constitution amendment act 1992 provides for the constitution of finance commission in every states.
The Finance commission is to be constituted within one year of enactments of act and at the end of five year thereafter.
Finance commissions are responsible for the reviewing the financial condition of the Panchayat and make recommendation to the respective Governors.
Development Activities: The act gives power and responsibility to the Panchayat to plan and execute the economic development programs. The responsibility includes making the plans for economic development and social justice and implementation of schemes listed in the eleventh schedule.
The activities as listed for the Panchayat institutions may be grouped under five categories that include Economic Development, Education, Health, Welfare and Infrastructure Development.
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